A standard format is used for these articles, in which the author presents the research in an orderly, logical manner. This doesn't necessarily reflect the order in which you did or thought about the work.
WRITING A SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH ARTICLE
This format is:. The person who did the work and wrote the paper is generally listed as the first author of a research paper. For published articles, other people who made substantial contributions to the work are also listed as authors. An abstract, or summary, is published together with a research article, giving the reader a "preview" of what's to come. Such abstracts may also be published separately in bibliographical sources, such as Biologic al Abstracts. They allow other scientists to quickly scan the large scientific literature, and decide which articles they want to read in depth.
The abstract should be a little less technical than the article itself; you don't want to dissuade your potent ial audience from reading your paper. Your abstract should be one paragraph, of words, which summarizes the purpose, methods, results and conclusions of the paper. It is not easy to include all this information in just a few words. Start by writing a summary that includes whatever you think is important, and then gradually prune it down to size by removing unnecessary words, while still retaini ng the necessary concepts. Don't use abbreviations or citations in the abstract.
It should be able to stand alone without any footnotes. What question did you ask in your experiment? Why is it interesting? The introduction summarizes the relevant literature so that the reader will understand why you were interested in the question you asked. One to fo ur paragraphs should be enough. End with a sentence explaining the specific question you asked in this experiment.
How did you answer this question? There should be enough information here to allow another scientist to repeat your experiment. Look at other papers that have been published in your field to get some idea of what is included in this section. If you had a complicated protocol, it may helpful to include a diagram, table or flowchart to explain the methods you used. Do not put results in this section. You may, however, include preliminary results that were used to design the main experiment that you are reporting on. Mention relevant ethical considerations. If you used human subjects, did they consent to participate.
If you used animals, what measures did you take to minimize pain? This is where you present the results you've gotten. Use graphs and tables if appropriate, but also summarize your main findings in the text. Do NOT discuss the results or speculate as to why something happened; t hat goes in th e Discussion. You don't necessarily have to include all the data you've gotten during the semester. This isn't a diary. Use appropriate methods of showing data. Don't try to manipulate the data to make it look like you did more than you actually did.
Dig into the research process.
If you present your data in a table or graph, include a title describing what's in the table "Enzyme activity at various temperatures", not "My results". For graphs, you should also label the x and y axes. Don't use a table or graph just to be "fancy".
If you can summarize the information in one sentence, then a table or graph is not necessary. Highlight the most significant results, but don't just repeat what you've written in the Results section. How do these results relate to the original question?
Do the data support your hypothesis? Are your results consistent with what other investigators have reported? If your results were unexpected, try to explain why. Is there another way to interpret your results? What further research would be necessary to answer the questions raised by your results? How do y our results fit into the big picture? End with a one-sentence summary of your conclusion, emphasizing why it is relevant. This section is optional. You can thank those who either helped with the experiments, or made other important contributions, such as discussing the protocol, commenting on the manuscript, or buying you pizza.
There are several possible ways to organize this section. Here is one commonly used way:. In the text, cite the literature in the appropriate places:. Scarlet thought that the gene was present only in yeast, but it has since been identified in the platypus Indigo and Mauve, and wombat Magenta, et al. In the References section list citations in alphabetical order.
Indigo, A. Queer place for qwerty: gene isolation from the platypus. Science , Magenta, S. Wombat genetics. Keep in mind these stages to understand how to write a research paper:. The best option is to send the final draft to the professional online editors to avoid mistakes! Move on to learn how to outline a paper and review some of the best examples written by the professional academic writers.
What is an outline for a research paper and how to write an outline for a research paper? The primary thing is to provide a clear definition. An academic project outline is an action plan a student prepares not to get lost during the process of writing, and this piece reflects the main points of the text. It is similar to the table of contents. Thanks to the fact a writing plan makes it possible to find links between various fields, the student succeeds with amalgamating and evaluating the work.
It prevents a student from repeating his words. An outline is a must when a student has to deal with a brief assignment of words or less. In case of a longer project, it is hard to imagine a successful writing process without any obstacles if the outline is missing. A student risks getting overwhelmed without a plan. That is why they should know how to write a research outline.
It is impossible to cope with a 10,word dissertation without learning how to write a detailed outline for a research paper. It is shorter than a table of contents and does not have to specify the number of pages.
How to Write a Research Paper Outline: The Complete Step-by-Step Guide
Once you are done with the draft, present the draft of an outline for a paper to the teacher to get feedback at the initial stage of work. How to write a thesis outline for a research paper using MLA? It is applied to the assignments written for the English Composition, History, Literature, and some other humanitarian classes. The primary MLA research paper outline is the draft. No need to include plenty of details when working on a draft but put the things in the correct order not to get lost in the middle of the writing process.
An outline helps to determine the way a student will build other important sections such as Literature Review.
Will it appear in chronological or alphabetical sequence? Have a look at the offered example of an outline for a research paper after observing the details.